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Coronavirus (COVID-19) travel restrictions in Nepal – updated 26 June 2021


The Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal has suspended almost all international flights through till further notice. Domestic flights have also been suspended. You should contact your airline or travel provider for more information and for re-booking.


All tourists entering Nepal must possess the following documents: 1) PCR negative report taken before 72 hours of boarding OR document showing complete vaccination against COVID-19; 2) Visa to Nepal OR recommendation letter from the Department of Tourism or Nepal Tourism Board to participate in tourism activities within Nepal; 3) a hotel booking or guaranteed accommodation; 4) Proof of Travel Insurance which covers emergency search, rescue, treatment, among others, for the duration of their travel; and 5) Barcode generated from the online application of the Online International Travel Arrival Form.


All international travelers must quarantine for 10 days after arrival, regardless of vaccination status. All people arriving to Kathmandu valley must also quarantine for 10 days.


At present, it may not be possible to get a visa on arrival. You are advised to contact your nearest Embassy of Nepal before your departure for Nepal.


The Kathmandu District Administration Office (DAO) as of April 5 has mandated that all travelers entering the district undergo an antigen test for COVID-19, with a positive antigen test result requiring a follow-on PCR test. Public spaces and services are now currently operating a restricted service in the Kathmandu valley to control outbreaks of COVID-19, and other districts may operate more restrictive models.


Lockdown restrictions to contain COVID-19 in Nepal are subject to change with little notice. Maintain social distancing, wear face masks in public, and adhere to limits on the size of public gatherings.




Nepal Extends International Flight Ban Till May End


The aviation regulatory authority of the Himalayan nation announced the extension of flight ban till midnight of May 31. The earlier flight ban was set to expire on May 14, which has now been elongated by 14 more days.

The Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN) has decided to extend the ban on international flights till the end of May amid surge in Covu-19 cases in the country.

Issuing a release on Tuesday evening, the aviation regulatory authority of the Himalayan nation announced the extension of flight ban till midnight of May 31. The earlier flight ban was set to expire on May 14, which has now been elongated by 14 more days.

"The suspension period of international schedule flights (except two flights in a week between Kathmandu and New Delhi, one flight each by Nepal Airlines and Air India, under the Air Travel Bubble Arrangement) is extended till 31st May 2021 midnight (23:59 hrs NST)," Hirajan Kafle, a Manager at the CAAN said in a release.

In a notice, the CAAN has directed airline companies not to open new bookings to and from Nepal until further notice. "Airlines are informed to facilitate refunding of air tickets or extension of travel date as required by passengers."

However, medical, chartered and cargo flights will be allowed to fly with permission from CAAN.

With the extension of the international flight ban, Nepalis migrants going abroad and returning home will be directly affected. Travel of foreign tourists involved in mountaineering is also likely to be affected.


Amid Covid-19 Surge, Nepal Bans all Domestic, International Flights


Health Minister Hridayesh Tripathi has said that charter flights would be allowed. Nepal has also made quarantine mandatory for everyone arriving in the country.

Nepal on Sunday banned all domestic flights from Monday midnight and all international flights from Wednesday midnight until May 14 amid a surge in COVID-19 cases.

"The decision on flight restrictions are in place until May 14," 
Health Minister Hridayesh Tripathi told the Kathmandu Post. "However, charter flights will be allowed." Nepal has also made quarantine mandatory for everyone arriving in the country.

Foreigners flying into the Kathmandu Valley are subject to a mandatory 10-day quarantine in hotels upon arrival. A negative polymerase chain reaction test result obtained within 72 hours prior to departure from the country of origin is required for entry into Nepal. Bus services have been halted since Thursday (April 29), reported Kathmandu Post.


Before the Cabinet's decision, the country's civil aviation regulator-the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal-had decided to introduce a fixed quota system for airlines to restrict the number of flights. "The whole country is going into lockdown and the two-week circuit-breaker is a wise decision," Birendra Bahadur Basnet, managing director of Buddha Air told the Kathmandu Post. "We will regret it if we don't act now."

An infection surge in Nepal has prompted the government to impose new lockdowns in major cities and towns.An infection surge in Nepal has prompted the government to impose new lockdowns in major cities and towns.

On April 29, Nepal enforced two-week prohibitory orders in Kathmandu Valley as the three districts of the Valley-Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur-are the most affected ones by the pandemic in terms of the number of daily cases, reported Kathmandu Post.

According to statistics of Kathmandu's Tribhuvan International Airport, domestic airlines saw an all-time one-day record of passenger numbers of 15,263 on April 28, a day before the prohibitory orders came into force enforced in Kathmandu Valley, as people scrambled to leave the Capital city. Passenger numbers, however, started to drop gradually and stood at 7,225 on Sunday.

Nepal on Sunday reported the highest-single day surge of coronavirus cases since the beginning of the pandemic in January last year. The country recorded 7,137 new cases in polymerase chain reaction tests and 74 in antigen tests. With 27 new fatalities from COVID-19-related complications, the death toll has reached 3,325.


The countrywide infection tally has reached 3,36,030, with the number of active cases at 48,711. The highest number of daily cases prior to Sunday was recorded on October 21 last year when the country reported 5,743 COVID-19 infections on a single day, reported Kathmandu Post.


Mount Everest  Reopens to Tourists, Trekkers - New Straits Time

FOREIGN tourists and trekkers can now visit the Mount Everest area without any restrictions as the local authorities there have removed all Covid-19 related restrictions.

Reeling from a loss of economic activity since the nation shut its doors to foreigners at the start of the pandemic, Nepal has been trying to woo back tourists to the mountainous region since October.

Nepal's government had previously decided to allow foreign tourists for trekking and mountaineering from Oct 17 and all visitors needed to submit a negative Covid-19 RT-PCR test report.

But with the Everest climbing season set to start in March, the authorities decided to go the next step by removing any such requirement for foreigners, only for the region.

Binod Bhattarai, chief administrative officer at Khumbu Pasang Lhamu Rural Municipality, the region where Everest is located, told the Kathmandu Post that since last Saturday, sightseers visiting the Everest region were no longer required to submit a negative Covid-19 RT-PCR test report or go into quarantine.

"The government has lifted the lockdown fully, the rate of the spread of the virus has dropped, and Nepal is expected to begin an inoculation drive against the infection this week," said Bhattarai.

"Based on all these factors, we deemed it necessary to lift the negative Covid-19 RT-PCR requirement to visit the Khumbu or Everest region."

"However, if any travelling passengers are suspected to have developed Covid-19 symptoms, we have made arrangements to conduct antigen tests at Nicole Niquille Hospital in Lukla," he said.

"There are no foreign tourists at this moment. But we are planning to draw some numbers this spring when the Everest climbing season begins in March," said Bhattarai.

On Sunday, Nepal recorded 270 new Covid-19 cases and the total cases is now almost 270,000 with more than 3,300 active cases.

In mid-December, Nepal threw open its doors to foreign tourists when it restored all tourist visas and foreign visitors were allowed to fly into the country.

However, its land borders are still closed.

Visitors are still required to submit a negative Covid-19 test result before being allowed entry.

The Everest region is the second most popular trekking route in Nepal after Annapurna. In 2019, more than 57,000 thrill seekers walked over the trails there.

The country had planned a Visit Nepal 3.0 campaign for 2020, hoping to attract some two million tourists, but it ended up becoming the worst year for tourism since 1986.

The Covid-19 pandemic crisis resulted in an almost 81 per cent drop in tourist arrivals from the previous year, making it the worst year-on-year decline since Nepal opened to the outside world in the 1950s.

According to Immigration Department figures, Nepal received 230,085 foreign tourists last year, equivalent to the arrivals figure of 1986. Most of them came before the country slapped restrictions on tourist entry on March 20. Between April and December, fewer than 15,000 individuals visited Nepal.



Nepal Travel Advisory


Reconsider travel to Nepal due to COVID-19. Exercise increased caution in Nepal due to the potential for isolated political violence.  


Read the Department of State’s COVID-19 page before you plan any international travel. 


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 4 Travel Health Notice for Nepal due to COVID-19.


Nepal has lifted stay at home orders, and resumed som transportation options and business operations. Visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 in Nepal.


Political demonstrations intended to be peaceful can sometimes escalate into violence and may be met with force by Nepali authorities.  


 Read the country information page. 


If you decide to travel to Nepal: 

  • See the U.S. Embassy's web pageregarding COVID-19.   
  • Visit the CDC’s webpage on Travel and COVID-19.    
  • Avoid demonstrations and crowds. 
  • Do not trek alone.  
  • Be aware that infrastructure, government services and medical assistance may not be up to U.S. standards. 
  • Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) to receive Alerts and make it easier to locate you in an emergency. 
  • Follow the Department of State on Facebook and Twitter. 
  • Review the Crime and Safety Report for Nepal. 
  • U.S. citizens who travel abroad should always have a contingency plan for emergency situations. Review the Traveler’s Checklist. 



Nepal Reopens to Foreign Tourists from Dec 17


Only tourists arriving by air will be allowed entry, the country’s land borders will still not allow movement of foreign tourists. Tourists will have to undergo mandatory seven-day hotel quarantine


Nepal has now decided to allow foreign tourists into the country. However, only those arriving by air will be allowed entry from December 17 onwards, Nepal’s land borders continue to remain closed for all foreigners.

A circular issued by Nepal’s Department of Immigration states, “Foreigners working at the
diplomatic missions in Nepal, international organizations and their family members, Non-Residential Nepali (NRNs) or foreign passport holders with Nepali origin including their family members are allowed to enter Nepal without any pre approval letters or recommendations. All the foreigners except mentioned above, should obtain a tourist entry visa from the Nepali diplomatic missions abroad, else should have a pre-approval /recommendation letter from the concerned ministries for ensuring their on-arrival visa. The entry/exit points at the land border remains closed for all the foreigners until further notice, except those with a pre-approval /recommendation of the Government of Nepal.”

Travellers are however required to carry a Covid-negative certificate of tests conducted within 72 hours prior to their departure from their home country. Only children below 5 years of age are exempted from submitting such a report.

Foreign tourists will also have to undergo a seven-day mandatory hotel quarantine. Nepal had stopped international flight operations from March 20 and had imposed a nationwide lockdown from March 24. The country had reopened its borders on October 17, 2020, but this was restricted to tourist trekkers and climbers.


Nepal and India have already entered into an air bubble arrangement in which the national carriers of both the countries will be ferrying passengers between Delhi and Kathmandu from December 17.


India-Nepal Ties Heading for Reset with Travel Air Bubble, Foreign Minister Visit on Cards


Nepal has been sending some constructive indicators and is eager on transferring ahead on its relationship with India.
During the practically one hour assembly between India’s overseas secretary, Harsh Shringla and Nepal’s Prime Minister, Okay P Oli, the discussions had been centered round normalising relations, which have been hit as a result of Lipulekh boundary row.
Sources inform OneIndia that whereas Nepal desires the ties to be bettered, it will additionally like to debate the border row. The two international locations may revive negotiations over the Pancheshwar multi-modal challenge and likewise arrange a journey air bubble, the supply additionally stated.

However India would tread cautiously as China seems to be wielding some affect over Nepal. India then again can also be wanting ahead to the go to by Nepal’s overseas minister, Pradeep Kumar Gyawali in December. The dates of the identical are presently being labored out.
Indian Army Chief General M M Naravane’s current three-day go to to Nepal was largely geared toward resetting bilateral ties that got here below extreme pressure following a bitter border row between the 2 international locations.
The assembly between Gen Naravane and Oli, who can also be the Defence Minister of Nepal, happened at his official residence in Baluwatar, Nepal Army sources stated.
Prime Minister Oli stated that there was good friendship between Nepal and India, in accordance with his overseas affairs advisor Rajan Bhattarai.
Oli expressed hope that the issues between the 2 international locations could be resolved by means of dialogue, Bhattarai stated in a tweet after the assembly.
The Nepal Prime Minister talked about the centuries-old particular relations present between Nepal and India, and the custom of conferring Honorary General of Army on one another’s Army chiefs, Bhattarai stated.
PM Modi to mark Dev Deepawali in Varanasi | Kashi decked up | Oneindia News
The Indian Embassy stated that through the assembly, either side additionally exchanged views on the in depth bilateral partnership between India and Nepal. Gen Naravane reaffirmed that he would work to additional strengthen the defence cooperation between the 2 international locations.


Nepal to Waive off Quarantine, Covid-19 Insurance Rules for Tourists



The Nepal government has decided to waive off quarantine and Covid-19 insurance rules for tourists starting from October 17 onwards, sources said on Friday.

On Thursday evening, a meeting of the Council of Ministers held at the Prime Minister's residence approved a proposal presented by the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation which will allow foreign tourists, who test negative for Covid-19 72 hours before their departure, to enter the country without having to quarantine at a hotel for seven days, The Himalayan Times quoted the sources as saying.

However, the tourists will have to take an antigen test or an instant PCR test immediately upon arriving at the Tribhuvan International Airport, according to the Ministry proposal.

The government has also planed to waive off the Covid-19 insurance of $5,000 for the tourists but the travellers must assure that their medical costs would be covered by themselves or the handling agencies, if they contract the virus during their visit, the sources added.

Tourism Minister Yogesh Bhattarai told The Himalayan Times that said that his Ministry would announce the protocols after consulting with the Covid-19 crisis management center in a day or two.

"We are ready to facilitate tourism activities addressing stakeholders' concerns," he added. The development came a day after Nepal reported the highest surge in the number of single-day coronavirus cases. Among the new cases, 2,540 have been reported from within Kathmandu Valley alone, The Health Ministry said. Twelve new fatalities were reported on Thursday, taking the overall death toll to 590.




Nepal Issues New Guidelines for Tourists Arriving for Mountaineering Amid Covid-19 Pandemi



KATHMANDU: Nepal has issued new guidelines for foreign tourists arriving in the country for mountaineering, including carrying a PCR test report conducted not more than 72 hours ago, in order to minimise the possible spread of coronavirus infection, a media report said on Tuesday.

According to the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation , the travellers must have a booking-document for the hotel wherein they will stay at least seven days in quarantine, the Himalayan Times reported.

“The travellers must carry with themselves a PCR test report conducted not more than 72 hours ago, attesting that the person has tested negative for Covid-19. Along with the report, the traveller must have booking-documents for the hotel wherein they will stay for at least seven days in quarantine,” the paper said, citing the guidelines.

Nepal, which has reported 74,745 Covid-19 cases and 481 deaths so far, resumed the mountaineering activities from July 30,five months after they were halted due to the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic.

The ministry said the tourists must secure an entry-visa, or an entry-permit in the absence of visa-provision in their countries in coordination with respective agencies.

According to the new guidelines, the visitor must provide papers proving they have an insurance of $5,000. In addition, the traveller must also undergo a PCR test at their own expense on the fifth day of being quarantined.

They may proceed for the purported activity at the end of the quarantine period only on testing negative for the disease. “If the test results in a positive, the person must stay in quarantine for as long as they do not test negative,” the paper said.

The Ministry also stated that the trekking or mountaineering agency must insure travellers from Nepal against coronavirus for a sum of Rs 100,000 prior to applying for a permit.

Travel enthusiasts must also abide by all the protocols laid out by the health ministry. Tourism and mountaineering are among the main sources of revenue for the Nepal government.

Last year, Nepal issued a record 381 permits for Mount Everest costing $11,000 each.

Source: Times Of India


Nepal Government Planning to Give Priority to Indian Tourists to Revive Tourism


Source: Times of India



Wooing Indian tourists is a high priority for the Gandaki provincial government of Nepal once the travel restrictions are lifted after the lockdown.

According to the latest statement given by Nepal's Tourist Minister Bikash Lamsal, the Nepal government is planning to give utmost preference to Indian tourists on their list as they form a major pa
rt of Nepal foreign tourist arrivals.


Reportedly, of the total tourists who visited Nepal’s Pokhara, the City of Lakes, in 2019, 40 per cent were from India. In the year 2018, Nepal’s foreign tourist count was 11.73 lakh, and the majority were from India.

Top tourist activities in Nepal include trekking, paragliding, boating, kayaking, etc. Lamsal said that although the government was unable to welcome tourists from abroad in 2019 due to the Coronavirus, they are trying to make the situation conducive to tourist foreign tourists in the upcoming years.

The minister also added that Nepal tourism is celebrating the year 2019-2022 as Tourism Year, and they are aiming for two million tourists. In addition, the year 2021 will be Tourism Infrastructure Improvement Year and 2022 International Tourism Year. Since the tourism sector has suffered in terms of revenue this year due to the pandemic, the country is trying to cover up the losses and trying to make better efforts for the next year.

Reportedly, Nepal has suffered a loss of 13 crore Nepal rupees per day owing to the present pandemic, which has suspended all tourist activities


Nepal enters Stage 2 of coronavirus transmission: MOHP

KATHMANDU: “Nepal has entered the second stage of coronavirus transmission,” Health Ministry’s spokesperson Dr Bikash Devkota said in the press briefing on Saturday, the day Nepal confirmed it’s first locally transmitted case in the far-west.

Three new cases of Covid-19 were registered on Saturday. One of the newly infected persons is a relative of the fourth person to have contracted the disease. With no recent travel history, the 34-year-old female from Kailali contracted the infection from her brother-in-law who had returned from Dubai on March 20 and was admitted to hospital on March 24. With this, the first person-to-person transmission in Nepal has been confirmed.

The Health and Population Ministry spokesperson said that the country has reached the second stage as the virus is infecting local hosts now.

Today’s new cases have taken Nepal’s infection total to nine, four of which hail from the far-west.



Message to Our Travellers Regarding the Corona Virus

The current worldwide outbreak of the Corona virus (Covid-19) is urging governments to announce strict measures that aim on preventing the virus from spreading. Those measures also involve restrictions on travelling.

From Nepal Tourism Package, NTP Tourism Affairs Ltd. we want to assure our clients who have scheduled a travel program for the coming weeks through us, that we are ready to look for ways to change your travelling plans to future dates together with you.

Please contact us for more detailed information:

NTP Tourism Affairs Ltd
S-11, Star City Mall, Mayur Vihar

Phase 1, New Delhi - 110091

Office: 00+91-9810098099
Website: www.nepaltourism.net


Because We Care

The Corona virus (Covid-19) is known to spread very easily from person-to-person by droplets from sneezing and coughing. For your own health and safety, please take note of the following important advises:
- wash your hands frequently with water and soap
- do not touch your face
- avoid shaking hands, hugging or kissing
- avoid going to crowded places
- keep a distance of one and half meters from other others.
Up to this date, Nepal has, thanks to closing its borders in a very early stage, just one confirmed case of the virus but also under control and monitoring by the authorities
It is our hope for all countries that are currently affected that the measures taken will be effective.

#CORONAVIRUS #Covid19 #dontcanceltripschangedates #savetourismindustry #besafe #welcomenepal #ARC #ToursandTravelCompany #travelagent #Tourist #accommodation #transport #hotel #public #Airlines

Team NTP Tourism Affairs Ltd.


Travel News : Coronavirus Covid-19

The deadly coronavirus hasn't just upset the plans of many travellers who are cancelling their bookings with fear of contracting the infection, but, has also adversely affected the airline and travel industry.


Industry people say that even though India is largely unaffected with the deadly coronavirus as of now, the happenings in the rest of the world have hugely created negative sentiments in the county and, hence, impacted the air travellers as well. This, in turn, has adversely impacted the business.


Talking to India Today TV, Travel Agent Association of India President Jyoti Mayal said, "Coronavirus has affected our travel and tourism business entirety in a very negative way. Globally, the travel industry has come into a deficit of nearly $80 billion. The Indian industry has already suffered huge losses and continues to do so".


It's not only restricted to the countries where the virus is active. Travellers are scared of being confined into aircraft space, cruises, being quarantined and more. We are advising our members to look at opportunities around them and request the government to give subsidies and rebates to our industry to sustain these difficult times," she added.


The airlines are reeling under sudden fall in demand which is hampering their business.


Urgent Notice Regarding Travel Restriction Related to COVID-19




March 9 onward no more arrival visa for tourist to Nepal due COVID 19
All tourist visiting Nepal needed Medical certificate before apply the Visa in the embassy.

There may be restrictions on all the tourists


Regulation for Pilgrims over 70 years old Kailash Mansarovar Yatra 2020


{A} Pilgrims over 70years old: Subject to the age on passport, pilgrims aged 70 or above in the year of pilgrimage are subject to this regulation.


{B} The following documents should be submitted for there pilgrims:

1) Health Examination report within 06 months by Indian Public hospital above country level. Content of the report should include doctor's judgment and suggestion whether the pilgrim's physical condition is suitable for the plateau areas( 4000 meters or 13000 feet above sea level).


2) Application by the pilgrim to express the intention for pilgrimage in T.A.R.; the application should be signed and fingerprinted by the pilgrim and two direct relatives. Party A will judge whether to allow the pilgrim entry T.A.R. according to these documents.Pilgrims suffering from high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma and other diseases which are not suitable for entering plateau areas cannot apply the permit.


{C} Accompany requirement: at least two direct relatives required.


{D} Party B shall offer guarantees to pilgrims over 70 years old. If pilgrim died not for reasons of Party A. Party B should pay USD 1000/pilgrim as liquidated damage.


{E} Health examination before parikrama: Local medical center of Party A will make health examination on pilgrims over 70 years old and give a proposal whether they are suitable for parikrama. If doctor's proposal is "not suitable for parikrama",this pilgrim needs to stop the trip.


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कैलाश मानसरोवर पर भारत को बड़ी कामयाबी, चीन-नेपाल भी आए साथ


(हिंदुओं की आस्था का केंद्र पवित्र कैलास बनेगा विश्व धरोहर, यूनेस्को की मंजूरी)

भारत को कैलाश मानसरोवर के संरक्षण की दिशा में बड़ी कामयाबी मिली है. यूनेस्को ने कैलाश भू-क्षेत्र को विश्व धरोहर का दर्जा दिलाने की दिशा में सहमति दी है और इसे अंतरिम सूची में भी शामिल किया है. प्रस्ताव के अनुसार, अब कैलाश को प्राकृतिक के साथ-साथ सांस्कृतिक श्रेणी की संरक्षित धरोहर का दर्जा दिया जाएगा.

मीडिया रिपोर्ट्स के मुताबिक, चीन व नेपाल भी कैलाश मानसरोवर को यूनेस्को संरक्षित विश्व धरोहर का दर्जा दिलाने के लिए यूनेस्को को प्रस्ताव भेज चुके हैं

मालूम हो कि कैलाश का 7120 वर्ग किलोमीटर क्षेत्रफल भारत के हिस्से में आता है. जबकि चीन (तिब्बत) के हिस्से में 10,843 वर्ग किलोमीटर, नेपाल के हिस्से में 13,829 वर्ग किलोमीटर हिस्सा आता है. इस तरह कुल 31 हजार 252 वर्ग किलोमीटर यूनेस्को की सूची में शामिल किया गया है.

बताया जा रहा है कि यूनेस्को संरक्षित विश्व धरोहर का दर्जा मिलने के बाद कैलाश मानसरोवर ना केवल विकसित होगा बल्कि यहां यात्रा करना आसान होगा.

इस बारे में डॉ. वीबी माथुर ने बताया कि यूनेस्को का कैटेगरी-2 सेंटर एशिया पैसिफिक क्षेत्र के देशों की प्राकृतिक धरोहरों को वैश्विक स्तर पर पहचान दिलाने के लिए काम करता है. इसी सेंटर ने कैलाश भूक्षेत्र को यूनेस्को में स्थान दिलाने के लिए काम किया है.

साथ ही नेपाल की अंतरराष्ट्रीय संस्था इसीमोड और उत्तराखंड अंतरिक्ष उपयोग केंद्र ने भी इसमें अहम भूमिका निभाई. अब अंतरिम सूची में कैलाश को स्थान मिलने के बाद अब यहां एक साल तक विभिन्न स्तर पर काम होगा. इसके बाद मुख्य प्रस्ताव बनाकर यूनेस्को को भेजा जाएगा.


Kailash Mansarovar Yatra 2018 Current News


Oxygen level at kailash Mansarovar

Altitude Sickness

The Causes of Altitude Sickness

The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere at sea level is about 21% and the barometric pressure is around 760 mmHg. As altitude increases, the percentage remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced. At 3,600 metres (12,000 feet) the barometric pressure is only about 480 mmHg, so there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath so the body must adjust to having less oxygen.

In addition, high altitude and lower air pressure causes fluid to leak from the capillaries in both the lungs and the brain, which can lead to fluid build-up. Continuing on to higher altitude without proper acclimatisation can lead to the potentially serious, even life-threatening sickness.



The main cause of altitude sickness is gaining height too quickly. Given enough time, your body will adapt to the decrease in oxygen at a specific altitude. This process is known as acclimatisation and generally takes one to three days at any given altitude, e.g. if you climb to 3,000 metres and spend several days at that altitude, your body will acclimatise to 3,000 metres. If you then climb to 5,000 metres your body has to acclimatise once again.

Several changes take place in the body, which enable it to cope with decreased oxygen:

* The depth of respiration increases.
* The body produces more red blood cells to carry oxygen.
* Pressure in pulmonary capillaries is increased, "forcing" blood into parts of the lung, which are not normally used when breathing at sea level.
* The body produces more of a particular enzyme that causes the release of oxygen from haemoglobin to the body tissues.


Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

Above 3,000 metres (10,000 feet) most people experience a periodic breathing during sleep known as Cheyne-Stokes Respirations. The pattern begins with a few shallow breaths and increases to deep sighing respirations then falls off rapidly even ceasing entirely for a few seconds and then the shallow breaths begin again. During the period when breathing stops the person often becomes restless and may wake with a sudden feeling of suffocation. This can disturb sleeping patterns, exhausting the climber. This type of breathing is not considered abnormal at high altitudes. Acetazolamide is helpful in relieving this periodic breathing.


Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS)

AMS is very common at high altitude. At over 3,000 metres (10,000 feet) 75% of people will have mild symptoms. The occurrence of AMS is dependent on the elevation, the rate of ascent, and individual susceptibility. Many people will experience mild AMS during the acclimatisation process. The symptoms usually start 12 to 24 hours after arrival at altitude and begin to decrease in severity around the third day.


The symptoms of Mild AMS include:

* Headache
* Nausea & Dizziness
* Loss of appetite
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Disturbed sleep
* General feeling of depression

Symptoms tend to be worse at night and when respiratory drive is decreased. Mild AMS does not interfere with normal activity and symptoms generally subside within two to four days as the body acclimatises. As long as symptoms are mild, and only a nuisance, ascent can continue at a moderate rate. When hiking, it is essential that you communicate any symptoms of illness immediately to others on your trip.
Moderate AMS


The signs and symptoms of Moderate AMS include: -

* Severe headache that is not relieved by medication
* Nausea and vomiting, increasing weakness and fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Decreased co-ordination (ataxia).

Normal activity is difficult, although the person may still be able to walk on his or her own. At this stage, only advanced medication or descent can reverse the problem. Descending only 300 metres (1,000 feet) will result in some improvement, and twenty-four hours at the lower altitude will result in a significant improvement. The person should remain at lower altitude until all the symptoms have subsided (up to 3 days). At this point, the person has become acclimatised to that altitude and can start climbing again.

The best test for moderate AMS is to have the person walk a straight-line heel to toe just like a sobriety test. A person with ataxia would be unable to walk a straight line. This is a clear indication that an immediate descent is required. It is important to get the person to descend before the ataxia reaches the point where they cannot walk on his or her own (which would necessitate a stretcher evacuation).


Severe AMS

Severe AMS results in an increase in the severity of the aforementioned symptoms including: Shortness of breath at rest, Inability to walk, Decreasing mental status, Fluid build-up in the lungs, Severe AMS requires immediate descent of around 600 metres (2,000 feet) to a lower altitude.

There are two serious conditions associated with severe altitude sickness; High Altitude Cerebral Oedema (HACO) and High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPO). Both happen less frequently. But, when they do occur, it is usually in people going too high too fast or going very high and staying there. In both cases the lack of oxygen results in leakage of fluid through the capillary walls into either the lungs or the brain.


High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPO)

HAPO results from fluid build up in the lungs. This fluid prevents effective oxygen exchange. As the condition becomes more severe, the level of oxygen in the bloodstream decreases, which leads to cyanosis, impaired cerebral function, and death.


Symptoms of HAPO include: -


* Shortness of breath at rest
* Tightness in the chest, and a persistent cough bringing up white, watery, or frothy fluid
* Marked fatigue and weakness
* A feeling of impending suffocation at night
* Confusion, and irrational behaviour

Confusion, and irrational behaviour are signs that insufficient oxygen is reaching the brain. One of the methods for testing yourself for HAPO is to check your recovery time after exertion. In cases of HAPO, immediate descent of around 600 metres (2,000 feet) is a necessary life-saving measure. Anyone suffering from HAPO must be evacuated to a medical facility for proper follow-up treatment.

Have you, or someone you know, ever suffered from HAPO or HAPE (high altitude pulmonary oedema)? Then join the "International HAPE Database" a registry of previous HAPE sufferers worldwide who might consider participating in future research studies. For more information, follow this link: - “International HAPE Registry”


NTP Yatra Navigator Dr Seema M Parihar shared pictures off her mission exploration deep inside Nepal

Posted on March 20, 2018


Great news to Share with NTP Kailash Mansarovar Pilgrims -NTP Kailash Mansarovar Yatra navigator NTP Yatra Navigator Dr Seema M Parihar shared pictures off her mission exploration deep inside Nepal, Tibet Plateau , Dr Parihar is  immensely credited for her Geographical researches, most acclaimed, one amongst top  academician world recognizes for her contributions in the field of geography SPL. remote sensing.


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