Nepal- Country of Reserves and Parks
Nepal is the country famous for its wildlife Reserves, National Parks, Hunting area and Conservation areas. It consists of 3 wildlife reserves, 10 National Parks, 1 Hunting Area and 3 Conservation Area. In Asia Nepal is on 10th place in terms of diversity and flowering plants. In Nepal at least 185 species of fresh water species, 100 species of reptiles, 844 species of birds, 43 species of amphibian, and 181 species of mammals has been recorded by zoologists.
Chitwan National Park
This is one of the famous national parks of Nepal as it is the first national park of the country. In 1973 this park was established and in 1984 the status of World Heritage Site was granted by the park. Climate of Chitwan National Park is tropical monsoon throughout the year because the park is located in central zone of Himalayas where in the month of June monsoon starts and remain there till the month of September. 70% area of park is covered with Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests along with Sal trees. 20% area of park is covered with grasslands and Terai-Duar savanna. Including with elephant grass, more than 50 species of flora found in this national park. More than 700 species of wildlife also found in Chitwan National Park, 17 species of monitor lizards, snakes and starred tortoise, as per records 113 species of mugger crocodiles and fishes, about 235 Gharials are found in Narayani-Rapti River. Along with the Jungle King the Bengal Tiger 43 species of mammals are also found in this park. Other species like leopards, jungle cat, fishing cat, marbled cat, leopard cat, and slotted bear also found in this park. Golden jackals are found commonly here, Rhinoceros, Bengal foxes, different species of mongoose are also found in this national park. This park also has wide diversity of bird, more than 450 species of birds are recorded in the park. Birds like hornbills, red headed trogons, pintails, Brahminy, sunbirds and much more.
Sagarmatha National Park
Unique among natural heritage sites world-wide is the Sagarmatha National Park, which includes Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and other high peaks such as Lhotse Shar, Cho Oyu, Ama Dablam, Pumori, Kangtega, Gyachung Kang, Thamserku and Kwangde. Located North-east of Kathmandu, Sagarmatha National Park is 1,148 sq km. in area and consists of the upper catchment areas of the Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi and the Imja Khola rivers. Much of the park lies above 3,000m. Sagarmatha is rugged, with deep gorges, glaciers and unnegotiable ice and rock faces. Locally known as the 'Khumbu', it is the home of the famous Sherpa people. The Sherpas make a living by farming barley and potatoes and graze their yaks in high altitude pastures. Young Sherpas have also made their name in mountaineering and the trekking industry has of late become the community's economic mainstay. In 1979 the park was declared a World Heritage Site.
Langtang National Park
The establishment of this national park was done on 1976 and this is the first Himalayan National Park and 4th national park of Nepal. The sacred lake named Gosainkunda which has high altitude falls within the park. This national park bisects from East-West to South-East by Dorje Lakpa range and Gosaikunda Lake. The climate of this national park is little warm as summer monsoon dominate on it and because of the huge difference in altitude of whole area there is a huge variation in temperature of this national park. In this national park 14 types of vegetation and 18 types of ecosystems are found.
Rara National Park
This national park was established in year 1976 and it is situated in Himalayas of Nepal. This national park is the smallest national park of Nepal. The park is named on the name of Rara Lake and the main objective to establish this park is to protect fauna and flora of Humla-Jumla region which is quite unique. At the northern part of the park Malika Kand and Ruma Kand frame the largest lake of Nepal which is the alpine freshwater lake. This national park is protected by the army of Nepal and managed by Department of National parks and Wildlife Conservation. As the Rara National Park is at altitude there is a variation in climate. In summer the climate is pleasant and in winters it has very cold climate. In this national park more than 1070 species of flora are found and 51 species of mammals, 2 species of reptiles and amphibians, 241 species of birds, and 3 species of fish has been found in Rara national park.
Khaptad National Park
Khaptad National Park is named on the name of Khaptad Baba who was the holy man and this park was established in 1984. A Khaptad Baba Ashram is one of the holy sites of Hindu, where they worship Lord Shiva in the month of July or August on full moon day. Landscape of this national park consists of streams, moorland and steep slopes and there more than 567 species has been found. As far as the fauna concern then in this national park 287 species of birds, 23 species of mammals, reptiles and amphibians are found.
Shey Phoksundo National Park
This is the Trans Himalayan National Park and the largest national park of Nepal. In 1984 the park announced as gazetted. The deepest lake of Nepal named Phoksundo Lake is in this national park on which the park was named. This national park has diverse flora which include walnut, pine, oak, willow, cypress and poplar. Juniper, pine, birch and spruce are pre dominate in higher reaches. This park is the habitat for endangered species like grey wolf, snow leopard, blue sheep and musk deer. In this park 29 species of butterfly, 200 species of birds, and 6 reptiles are also found.
Bardiya National Park
This national park is established in 1988 as Royal Bardiya National Park. Most area of the park about 70% is forest with balanced mixture of riverine forest, grassland and savannah. In this park 140 species of dicots, 173 species of Vascular Plants, 26 species of monocots, 1 species of gymnosperm and 6 species of ferns are found. This park consists of 125 species of mugger crocodile and fish, 23 species of amphibians and reptiles, and few population of Gharial also found. This park also provide habitat to 53 species of mammals and 407 species of birds.
Makalu Barun National Park
This is eastern extension of Sagarmatha National Park that was established in the year 1992 and which is also eighth highest national park on Nepal. The climate of this park is same as Sagarmatha national park where monsoon starts in June and last till September. This is the park in which 3128 species of flowering plants has been recorded which includes 48 varieties of primroses, 30 varieties of rhododendron, 47 varieties of orchids, 15 Varieties of oak, 19 varieties of Bamboos, 67 economically valuable medicinal plants and aromatic, 86 varieties of fodder trees. This park also consists of wide diversity of faunal species 315 species of butterflies, 16 species of amphibians and 43 species of reptiles and 78 species of fish also found.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
This park was established in year 2002 and ranked as 9th national park in Nepal. Climate of this park varies from 2-170c in summer and winter monsoon. This park consists of 129 species of mushrooms, 19 species of mammals which include leopard, beer, wild boar, deer, Langur, wild cat and monkey. It also provide habitat to 102 species of butterflies and 177 species of birds.
Banke National Park
It is on 10th rank and established recently in 2010 and it is located in Mid-Western Region of Nepal. This national park is the neighbor of Bardiya National Park and represents tiger conservation.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
This is the area of eastern Nepal in Terai, in 1976 it was established and in December 1987 it was designated as Ramsar site. 68% of the land is covered with grassland and 6% is covered with forest, around 514 species of plants are found. Here wide species of fish has been found which is about 200 in number, 9 species of frog, 2 species of toads, 6 species of lizards, 11 species of turtle and 5 species of snakes are also found. 31 species of mammals have been recorded and also Wild Asian Water Buffalo found in this national park.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve
This reserve is adjacent to Chitwan National Park and it is the protected area of south central Nepal. In this national park at least 919 species of flora to be found which include 5 species of pteridophytes, 1 species of gymnosperm, 298 species of vascular plants, 58 species of monocots and 234 species of dicots. In this reserve 37 Gaurs and 4 adult Bengal tigers found.